Tuesday, 4 July 2017

Higgs Boson and Standard Model


The Higgs Boson is a very famous term and many people are familiar with it. Higgs Boson was discovered in July, 2012. Higgs Boson was discovered in one of the world's most complex and expensive experimental facilities to date and that is "The Large Hadron Collider" .Discovery of Higgs Boson also confirmed the existence of Higgs Field as described by Peter Higgs. The Higgs boson or Higgs particle is an elementary particle in particle physics. Higgs Boson was originally theorized in 1964. Peter Higgs proposed that there is an energy field permeated in the entire universe. This field is known as Higgs Field. The Higgs field is fundamental to the Standard Model and other theories within particle physics. In March 2013 the Higgs Boson particle was confirmed to interact, behave and decay as predicted by the Standard Model.


During 1940’s to 1960’s physicists discovered many subatomic particles; more than hundred. Physicists realized that the protons and neutrons are made of smaller objects. These smaller objects are called quarks. There are six types of Quarks. These six types of quarks are down; charm, up, strange, bottom and top quarks. Up and Down quarks were found inside the proton and neutron while other explains the vast number of particles discovered in Particle accelerator. Other than quarks there are Leptons and there are six leptons as well.

Most familiar lepton is electron. Three Leptons have charge and these are Electron, Muon and Tau. The other three are neutral and are called neutrinos. These are Electron neutrino, Muon neutrino, Tau neutrino. Quarks and Lepton make every particle that we know. Quarks and Leptons are the building blocks of the Cosmos. These quarks and Leptons are held together to form other particle due to different forces. Without these forces, these particles will not interact with each other. Physicists know about four kinds of forces, Gravity, Electromagnetism, Strong nuclear force and Weak force. Gravity is the most common force and in quantum realm Gravity is a weak force and physicists don’t know how it works in the quantum realm. Other three are very well understood. Forces of Gravity and Electromagnetism have effects on large distances and scales while other two only have effect in atomic level. All the subatomic forces work by exchanging different kind of particles. Gluons are force partcles for the strong nuclear force, Photons are force particles for the electromagnetic force and W and Z bosons are for weak nuclear force. In Standard model Gravity is not counted. In Standard Model Higgs Boson is a particle of Higgs Field and fermions describes the excitations of fermionic fields.

Well, getting back to Higgs Boson. Some atomic particles have a great deal of mass and some have a little while some have not at all. Energy field proposed by Peter Higgs would interact with subatomic particles and will give them a certain amount of mass. Particle with great mass will interact a lot with the Higgs field. The lighter subatomic particle is Electron and king of mass is Top Quark. Top Quark is thousand times massive than electrons. The top quark and electron are of same size indeed they have zero size. Top quark interacts more with Higgs Field than electron and that is why it is more massive. No Higgs field means any mass of any particle. The Higgs Boson is the smallest bit of Higgs Field. Higgs Field is made of countless individual particles of the Higgs Boson particles. This is why most of the time Higgs Boson is also known as "The God Particle". Higgs field actually decides which particle will be more massive than others and that is why it is important concept in the Standard Model.

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