Black hole BREAKTHROUGH: Scientists ‘REWRITE Astronomy textbooks’ with Space discovery

BLACK holes are the most mysterious objects in space, but scientists have come one small step closer to understanding the impossibly powerful phenomena.

Black holes are parts of space-time displaying such powerful gravitational pull that nothing – even light – can escape. Black holes were believed to take on the shape of a donut. But scientists will now have to re-write the astronomy rulebooks after proving black holes actually resemble 3D fountains.

 Black hole structure fountain shape

It has until now been assumed that gas surrounding black holes was donut-shaped.

But scientists now believe the reality about black holes is far more complex, after studying one 14 million light-years away.

Gas surrounding black holes spews from them in a 3D fountain, new research has revealed.

Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) simulations now suggest the donut is really a more bizarre structure comprised of three constantly circulating gases.

 Black hole structure fountain

Black holes: The entities are powerful enough to distort space-time (Image: Getty)

Researchers were observing a supermassive black hole at the center of the Circinus galaxy.

Data from this was compared this with a simulation of gas into a black hole, using the Cray XC30 ATERUI supercomputer.

Their conclusions challenge the belief that matter falling into a black hole builds up around it to form a donut structure.

The results now suggest it is more of a three-step process.

First, the cold gas forms a disk near the plane of rotation, heating up until the molecules break down.

Some of these molecules are expelled above and below the disk, then create a fountain-like structure.

“Previous theoretical models set a prior assumptions of rigid donuts,” said Keiichi Wada, a Kagoshima University theoretician.

“Rather than starting from assumptions, our simulation started from the physical equations and showed for the first time that the gas circulation naturally forms a donut.

 Black hole structure

Black holes: Gas surrounding black holes spews from them in a 3D fountain (Image: Getty)

 Black hole structure fountain shape 3d

Black holes: These findings have upended what we thought knew (Image: Getty)

“Our simulation can also explain various observational features of the system.”

These findings have upended what we thought knew.

Keiichi Wada added: “By investigating the motion and distribution of both the cold molecular gas and warm atomic gas with ALMA, we demonstrated the origin of the so-called ‘donut’ structure around active black holes.

“Based on this discovery, we need to rewrite the astronomy textbooks.”